Each of these types of BIM has different applications in the fields of architecture, design, and engineering. While one project might be focused on economics and require 5D Estimating BIM, another might be time-oriented and work well with 4D Scheduling BIM. No one type is “better” than the others or universally required. When working with energy in building systems, 6D Sustainability BIM is the way to go. Because of the richness of data that BIM provides, linking energy usage data provides a powerful source of sustainability information.
For a business, the bottom line is the cost of the space and the ROI it provides. That’s why, when talking about the energy efficiency of a space, it’s crucial to include an analysis of the economic side of the issue. Using REVIT, which integrates 3D modeling and cost estimates, to build a picture of a space’s energy efficiency is a great way to move towards that goal and present a compelling plan. By providing 3D drawings and CAD sketches, it easily shows the places where energy efficiency can be improved for better economic return.
Sustainability deals with the life cycle of energy and resources through any one element. When working on a new building or improving an old one, a great way to make a space as cost effective as possible is through sustainable element tracking. In this process made possible by 6D Sustainability BIM, you can analyze individual components of a space and figure out how to optimize each element. Over time, keeping an eye on your sustainability will increase profit and public opinion of the company.
One of the most popular building sustainability options in the world, LEED certification is a huge asset in today’s eco-interested economy. With multiple levels each demonstrating a deeper level of sustainability, LEED certification is a rigorous process that requires constant maintenance. One great benefit of 6D Sustainability BIM is the option to easily monitor factors of importance to LEED certification, such as energy efficiency and heating/cooling efficiency.
Today, it is estimated that energy usage of cities (and more specifically ‘urban structures’) accounts for more than 70% of the global energy consumption along with 75% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions; and with a projected estimate of over 900 billion square feet of new construction by the year 2050, solutions for urban built environments will be critical in reaching that global temperature increase limit of 1.5 deg. Celsius as decreed in the Paris Climate Agreement.
Advanced architectural design features which will impact the energy load on a building can be incorporated directly into the building’s structure as a passive energy control system – and can achieve up to 50% energy savings according to ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers).
Of all the sustainable building systems and materials available, the engineering and design of hybrid energy systems that incorporate active solar energy systems, high-efficiency mechanical systems along with passive building strategies are yielding the greatest results for high-performance buildings.
Some elements for a hybrid A&E sustainable design which will use both passive and active energy systems, include:
Determining the shading effect of surrounding structures or landscapes on solar panel arrays can be a challenging problem that is dependent on many parameters, including the time of year, the time of day, and the tilt, angle, and dimensions of the panels. A high-quality 3D computer model which analyzes and simulates the shading effect of environmental structures is useful to increase photovoltaic energy performance and lower energy costs from inappropriate panel inclinations and orientation.
A 3D solar shading analysis protects your solar system investment by avoiding shadows on solar collectors where even partial shading on solar panels can possibly compromise the efficiency of the entire system. Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems consist of multiple strings of solar collector panels arrayed to meet the voltage requirements of the building’s electrical needs. When a shadow is cast on any portion of a single panel within a string, the flow of energy is blocked and the output of the entire string can possibly be reduced to virtually zero.
A solar shading analysis will determine if any portion of the building will be affected by cast shadows during any portion of the day, at any time of the year. The resulting analysis can help engineers make an informed decision to building site orientation, optimum solar system installation location, performance parameters for building facade systems such as curtain wall arrangement, and as input into 3D BIM facility management protocols.
Interior cooling loads are drastically reduced when the heat and glare from the sun can be shaded, reflected, or absorbed and stored for secondary use through sun control and shading devices.
The effective planning of a passive solar control system will begin with an analysis of the seasonal sun resources, annual variations of climate, and the frequency of extreme climatic conditions. A solar site analysis is then performed to obtain a detailed study of the daily path the sun makes over the project site; this information can also be used to determine the best site orientation for optimizing solar energy system potential and specifying shading devices to minimize radiant and convection heat gains through walls and windows.
Finally, a 3D solar shading analysis is critical to determine the extent in which structural or environmental shadows are cast. The goal of a 3D solar shade study for passive solar management is to provide an understanding of the amount of sunlight available for interior daylighting schemes, interior and exterior shading devices during sunny months, and passive solar heating potential in cooler months.
Sun shading devices can either block or allow solar radiation to provide a comfortable interior environment in both the summer and winter months. They are useful in reducing the HVAC load, decreasing energy costs, and improving building energy performance.
3D solar shading analysis offers thermal management insight to determine design strategies for building materials, openings, thermal mass, and facade design, along with the other efficient avenues to harnessing the sun’s light and energy. Passive heat gain or heat reduction options can then be specified, namely:
The output of a 3D solar shading analysis can be used to model different shading scenarios across a range of complex situations. Shadow visualization software applications can animate the cast shadows from surrounding objects as they would appear on the building structure throughout the day. This type of visualization is instrumental in solar collector placements and finding the best position to optimize photovoltaic potential.
Shadow calculations can also be charted on graphs and table for easy analysis by engineers. This profile will give a visual comparison between many useful characteristics, such as energy losses and the annual energy yield of the entire system. Often many potential and hidden problems can be avoided especially with large, complex solar arrays including more cost-effective optimizations. Sun tracking and solar shading illustrations are instrumental in achieving BIM Level 2 Compliance which incorporates building information in a data-rich 3D environment.
Solar energy installations and high-performing built structures require a major capital investment, yet the returns over the lifecycle of the building are substantial for both the owner and the environment. A 3D solar shading analysis is of benefit to engineers, architects, systems designers, solar energy sales teams, site surveyors, and building performance analysts.
Industry standard mathematical models can enhance presentations by quantifying design decisions concerning site selection, system layouts, energy calculations, and economic analysis. Work with an outsourced engineering firm experienced in 3D CAD modeling and solar system design application that can guide your project throug a variety of analytical tools and visualization models that calculate or simulate sun and shadows to: